Hashing passwords (hashlib)

This code example demonstrates the following advanced functionalities of the hashlib library:

  1. Generating a random salt using os.urandom() for password hashing.
  2. Hashing a password with salt using the SHA-256 algorithm.
  3. Verifying if a provided password matches the hashed password.
  4. Generating a message digest using the SHA-256 algorithm for data integrity verification.
import hashlib
import os

def generate_salt():
    # Generate a random salt
    return os.urandom(16)

def hash_password(password, salt):
    # Hash the password with salt using SHA-256
    hashed_password = hashlib.sha256(password + salt).hexdigest()
    return hashed_password

def verify_password(password, hashed_password, salt):
    # Verify if the provided password matches the hashed password
    return hashed_password == hash_password(password, salt)

def generate_digest(data):
    # Generate a message digest using SHA-256
    digest = hashlib.sha256(data.encode()).hexdigest()
    return digest

# Example usage
password = b'my_password'
salt = generate_salt()
hashed_password = hash_password(password, salt)

print("Salt:", salt)
print("Hashed Password:", hashed_password)

# Verify the password
if verify_password(password, hashed_password, salt):
    print("Password Verified!")
    print("Password Verification Failed!")

# Generate message digest
data = "Hello, World!"
digest = generate_digest(data)
print("Message Digest:", digest)
Code Explanation
  1. Importing hashlib and os: We import the hashlib library for cryptographic hashing and the os module for generating random salt.
  2. generate_salt() function: This function generates a random salt of 16 bytes using os.urandom().
  3. hash_password() function: It takes a password and salt as input, combines them, and then hashes the result using the SHA-256 algorithm. The resulting hash is returned as a hexadecimal string.
  4. verify_password() function: This function verifies whether a provided password matches the hashed password by recalculating the hash using the same salt and comparing it with the stored hash.
  5. generate_digest() function: It generates a message digest (hash) of input data using the SHA-256 algorithm. The input data is first converted to bytes before hashing.
  6. Example usage: We demonstrate how to use the functions by hashing a password with a generated salt, verifying the password, and generating a message digest for a sample data string.
  7. Output: The code prints the generated salt, hashed password, and message digest to the console for demonstration purposes.

Salt: b’\x8d\xfeD\xe8\x80\x08\xfb8x\xd5\xa4\x88j\xe7\xbb’ Hashed Password: 62d6fc99b43266b9e9241b42d8d4c3365256fd6ff4a58f2ed8b06734ef3b7951 Password Verified! Message Digest: 681427575b22d95a0b9dbbf18b2dcdc7fd2ed95c2ab22e1e8c0b5a58b56e8d47

In this example:

  • The randomly generated salt is b'\x8d\xfeD\xe8\x80\x08\xfb8x\xd5\xa4\x88j\xe7\xbb'.
  • The password b'my_password' is hashed using the SHA-256 algorithm with the salt, resulting in the hashed password 62d6fc99b43266b9e9241b42d8d4c3365256fd6ff4a58f2ed8b06734ef3b7951.
  • The password is verified successfully, indicating that the entered password matches the stored hash.
  • The message digest of the input data "Hello, World!" is 681427575b22d95a0b9dbbf18b2dcdc7fd2ed95c2ab22e1e8c0b5a58b56e8d47.