Running the Query in SQL from Python

Executing SQL queries directly from a Python environment is a common task when working with databases. The pyodbc module is one of the popular ways to connect to SQL databases from Python. Here’s a detailed explanation of how to run a SQL query from Python using the pyodbc module:


  1. Install pyodbc: Make sure you have pyodbc installed. You can install it using pip:
pip install pyodbc
  1. Database Connection Details: Ensure you have the necessary connection details such as server name, database name, user ID, and password.

Steps to Execute SQL Queries

  1. Import pyodbc: First, you need to import the pyodbc module.
  2. Establish a Connection: Create a connection to the SQL database using the pyodbc.connect() function. You will need to pass a connection string that includes your server name, database name, user ID, and password.
  3. Create a Cursor Object: A cursor object is created using the connection.cursor() method. This cursor is used to execute SQL queries.
  4. Execute SQL Query: Use the execute() method of the cursor object to run your SQL query. You can pass your SQL query as a string to this method.
  5. Fetch Results: After executing the query, you can fetch the results using cursor methods like fetchall(), fetchone(), or by iterating over the cursor.
  6. Close the Connection: It’s good practice to close the cursor and connection once you are done with database operations.

Example Code

Here’s a step-by-step example demonstrating how to execute a simple SELECT query to fetch all records from a table called Users:

import pyodbc

# Define the connection string
connection_string = (
    'DRIVER={ODBC Driver 17 for SQL Server};'

# Establish the connection
connection = pyodbc.connect(connection_string)

# Create a cursor from the connection
cursor = connection.cursor()

# Execute the SQL query
cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM Users")

# Fetch and print all rows from the executed query
for row in cursor:

# Close the cursor and connection

Explanation of the Code

  • Connection String: This is a formatted string containing the details required to connect to the SQL server. Make sure to replace your_server_name, your_database_name, your_username, and your_password with your actual database credentials.
  • Establishing Connection: pyodbc.connect(connection_string) establishes the connection to the SQL database.
  • Creating Cursor: connection.cursor() creates a cursor object which is used to execute SQL commands.
  • Executing Query: cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM Users") executes the SQL query to select all records from the Users table.
  • Fetching Results: The for row in cursor: loop iterates over the cursor to fetch and print each row from the query results.
  • Closing Connection: Finally, it’s important to close both the cursor and the connection to free up resources.

Additional Notes

  • Parameterized Queries: For security reasons, especially to avoid SQL injection attacks, use parameterized queries when working with user inputs.
cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM Users WHERE UserID = ?", user_id)
  • Error Handling: Implement error handling using try-except blocks to handle potential database errors gracefully.