Java supports a variety of operators, which are symbols that represent specific operations on one or more operands. Operators in Java can be grouped into the following categories:
- Arithmetic Operators: Arithmetic operators are used to perform basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulo (remainder). These operators include + (addition), – (subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division), and % (modulo).
- Relational Operators: Relational operators are used to compare two values and determine their relationship. These operators return a boolean value (true or false) based on the comparison. Relational operators in Java include < (less than), > (greater than), <= (less than or equal to), >= (greater than or equal to), == (equal to), and != (not equal to).
- Logical Operators: Logical operators are used to combine multiple conditions and determine their truth value. These operators include && (logical AND), || (logical OR), and ! (logical NOT).
- Bitwise Operators: Bitwise operators are used to perform operations on the individual bits of a binary representation of a value. These operators include & (bitwise AND), | (bitwise OR), ^ (bitwise XOR), ~ (bitwise complement), << (left shift), and >> (right shift).
- Assignment Operators: Assignment operators are used to assign a value to a variable. These operators include = (simple assignment), += (addition assignment), -= (subtraction assignment), *= (multiplication assignment), /= (division assignment), %= (modulus assignment), &= (bitwise AND assignment), |= (bitwise OR assignment), ^= (bitwise XOR assignment), <<= (left shift assignment), and >>= (right shift assignment).
- Conditional Operators: Conditional operators are used to create conditional expressions, which evaluate to one of two values depending on the truth value of a given condition. The ternary operator (?:) is the only conditional operator in Java.
Understanding these operators and their precedence is crucial for writing efficient and effective Java code. By using the appropriate operator for a given task, you can optimize your code and make it more readable and maintainable.